• Eye Anatomy 101

    The eye has many parts that work together to create vision. The eyes themselves are only part of “seeing.” The brain is also involved. The eyes, though, begin the complex process of vision by gathering, focusing and passing on visual information to the brain. To help you learn how the eye works,

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  • Binocular Vision

    The human visual system is a complex network including the eye, ocular nerves, and key brain areas that process visual information. Under most circumstances, we use information from both eyes to create a single visual image. This ability to converge information from both eyes is called binocular vision.

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  • Eye Perception

    Visual perception refers to a set of skills used to collect and interpret visual information taken in from our environment. The visual information gathered is combined with our other senses, allowing us to derive meaning from what we see. Through the process of merging visual data with our other senses,

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  • Tearing

    Suffering from watery eyes, also known as tearing, or epiphora, is a condition that happens when the eyes make too many tears or produce them constantly. There are many causes of excessive tearing, but only a few are signs of more serious conditions. Causes of Excessive Tearing One of two things often

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  • Swollen Eyelids

    Swollen eyelids are a fairly common eye condition caused by inflammation or excess fluid in the connective tissues surrounding the eye. Depending on the cause, swollen eyelids can be painful or not painful and affect the upper eyelid, the lower eyelid, or both. Swollen eyes can be caused by many different

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  • Sleep in the Eyes (Eye Discharge)

    Sometimes referred to as "sleep" or eye matter, eye discharge that appears in normal consistency upon waking is a typical part of your body's defense mechanisms, protecting your eyes from bacteria or other irritants. Eye discharge that appears in abnormal consistency, color, or quantities might be a

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  • Red Eye

    The redness associated with “red eye” is usually caused by dilated or swollen blood vessels. As a result, the surface of the eye looks bloodshot. In contrast to vision problems or pain in the eye, red eye is often less of a concern. However, there are times when red eye may be a sign of a more serious

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  • Ptosis

    Ptosis (TOE-sis) refers to an upper eyelid that droops and can occur in children or adults. The droop may be hardly visible, or it could cover the entire pupil. Depending on the severity of the droop, it could interfere with vision. People with ptosis may try to lift the eyelids or tilt their heads back

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  • Photophobia

    Do you find yourself squinting or closing your eyes in bright light? It could be photophobia or acute light sensitivity. Eyes are designed to respond to light, but certain conditions can create light sensitivity. Exposure to sunlight, fluorescent light, incandescent light and other bright light sources

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  • Flashers and Floaters

    Many people experience small, dark, cobwebby shapes drifting across their field of vision. These floaters are especially common as people age. Flashes, a similar phenomenon, are quick flickers of light. Both are usually harmless, but, occasionally, can be a sign of serious eye troubles. Causes Vitreous

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  • Eye Twitching

    Few eye issues are as simultaneously subtle and annoying as a twitch that comes on suddenly and/or recurs frequently. A twitching eyelid may not appear visible to the people around you at all, but it can make you feel highly self-conscious and drive you to search for the cause and the cure. Unfortunately,

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  • Eye Pain

    Eye pain is not normal and should always be checked by your eye care professional. It is especially urgent if the pain comes with any of the following symptoms: The pain is intense and sudden. Your eye is injured or is being irritated by a foreign object. The pain comes with sensitivity to light or

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  • Stargardt Disease

    Loss of eyesight and macular degeneration are typically associated with aging. Stargardt disease, however, an inherited form of macular degeneration, commonly affects children and young adults. Also referred to as Stargardt macular dystrophy (SMD) or flavimaculatus, the term Stargardt disease refers

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  • Retinitis Pigmentosa

    The term retinitis pigmentosa (RP) refers to a set of degenerative genetic diseases that gradually kill off the light-sensing cells (rods and cones) of the retina, eventually causing blindness. It is a relatively rare genetic disorder, affecting only 1 in 4,000 people. Retinitis pigmentosa can be difficult

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  • Macular Dystrophy

    You may have heard of macular degeneration, an age-related condition in which people suffer permanent vision loss due to damage in a part of the retina called macula. But you may not be so familiar with a similar macular condition that also causes vision loss -- even in young people. This condition,

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  • Keratoconus

    If you find yourself experiencing blurred or distorted vision that seems to get worse year after year, you may suffer from an irregularity of the cornea known as keratoconus. This condition is infamous for causing astigmatism and nearsightedness that can progress rapidly, calling for constant updates

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  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Retinitis

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is a serious disease causing compromised vision and ultimately a total loss of vision. CMV retinitis is typically associated with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). In the early days of the AIDS epidemic, nearly one-quarter of all individuals diagnosed with late-stage

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  • Fuchs' Corneal Dystrophy

    Fuchs' dystrophy (pronounced fooks DIS-truh-fee) is an eye disease characterized by degenerative changes to the cornea’s innermost layer of cells. The cause for Fuchs' dystrophy is not fully understood. If your mother or father has the disease, then there is roughly a 50 percent chance that you will

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  • Bifocal Contacts

    Bifocal contact lenses are a type of contact lens that combine two different prescriptions in the same lens. One component corrects nearsightedness and the other prescription addresses farsightedness or farsightedness. Several types of bifocal contacts are available; your eye care provider can help you

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  • Contact Lens FAQ

    Can I wear contact lenses? Most people are able to wear contact lenses safely and comfortably. There are contact lenses that correct for nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism, and other vision problems. An optometry exam can determine what lenses are appropriate for you. Are contact lenses safe

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  • Pinguecula and Pterygium (Surfer's Eye)

    Characterized by a yellowish raised part of the scleral conjunctiva (the lining of the white part of the eye), a pinguecula usually develops near the cornea (colored part of the eye), but does not extend past it. Similar to a callus on the skin, changes in tissues lead to the buildup of calcium, fat,

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  • Macular Degeneration

    One of the most important reasons for regular examinations by your eye care provider is evaluate for the development of macular degeneration. According to the Bright Focus™ Foundation, this condition is the primary cause of loss of vision and blindness in older individuals ages 60 and above and is

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  • Cataracts

    Many body parts begin to change as you age, and your eyes are no exception. One of the most common age-related eye changes is the development of cataracts. Although cataracts do not occur exclusively in older adults, they affect approximately half of all Americans by age 80. What Are Cataracts? Cataracts

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  • Uveitis

    Uveitis refers to the inflammation of the eye's middle layer, which consists of the iris, ciliary body, and choroid. Several fungal, viral, or bacterial infections lead to uveitis, as do certain autoimmune (systemic) and inflammatory conditions. In most cases of uveitis, however, the exact cause is unknown. Types

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  • Computer Vision Syndrome

    Almost everyone uses computers in the modern world, whether for recreation, employment, education or any combination of the three. Unfortunately, our increased use of computers in almost every aspect of our lives -- even using a smartphone to make a telephone call -- requires our eyes to read a computer

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  • Strabismus

    Commonly called crossed eyes, strabismus is a condition in which eyes do not work together, failing to maintain proper alignment. While one eye focuses on an object, the other does not. The failure of the eyes to work together causes double vision, and if untreated can lead to an extreme reduction of

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  • Glaucoma

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness in the United States, making it an important public health priority. Although there are several factors that cause glaucoma, all types of glaucoma are characterized by damage to the optic nerve. This damage prevents the brain from receiving appropriate

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  • Sjogren's Syndrome

    Pronounced SHOW-grins, Sjogren's syndrome is a disorder of the immune system, or an autoimmune disease, which causes the body's immune system to attack and harm the body's glands. Your glands are responsible for the production of saliva, tears, and other lubrication necessary for the proper function

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  • Optic Neuritis

    Also known as demyelinating optic neuritis, optic neuritis refers to the inflammation of the optic nerve due to the loss of or damage to a protective covering called myelin, which surrounds the optic nerve. The myelin is essential to the function of the optic nerve. A more general term, optic neuropathy,

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  • Eye Occlusions

    An eye occlusion is a blockage in one of the arteries or veins supplying blood to the retina and/or optic nerve. These blockages can cause severe and sudden vision loss. Contact your eye care professional immediately if you experience sudden vision loss, and follow up right away with your family doctor.

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  • Astigmatism

    Many correctable vision problems are caused by abnormal eye anatomy. Very few people have perfectly shaped eyes that facilitate ideal vision. Rather, most people have some degree of abnormal curvature or other anatomical irregularities that cause slight visual changes. Astigmatism is one common form

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  • Stye

    A stye, sometimes spelled as "sty," is a red, painful bump near the edge of the eyelid. It may look like a pimple or abscess, and it can form on the inside or outside of the eyelid. A stye is actually a localized infection that usually disappears by itself after a few days, although in rare cases, a

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  • Chalazion

    A chalazion is the medical term for a slowly developing lump on the eyelid that occurs due to an oil gland blockage. At first, the eyelid may appear to be red, tender and swollen. After several days, the chalazion will form on the eyelid, appearing as a slow growing lump. While it is initially painless

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  • Blepharitis

    Stinging, irritated eyes, and blurred vision may indicate nothing more than a case of blepharitis -- an unpleasant but, in most cases, relatively harmless condition. Blepharitis is a chronic eyelid inflammation caused by a variety of irritants and/or the inability to maintain proper eye lubrication.

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  • Bell's Palsy

    If you suffer from Bell's palsy, a paralysis of one side of the face caused by nerve inflammation, you may lose control over your eyelids. This eyelid paralysis can create problems for the sensitive cornea that protects the eye's lens and helps focus light waves into clear images. Fortunately, an experienced

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